Human habitation of the Qatar Peninsula dates as far back as 50,000 years back.The peninsula was used almost continuously as rangeland for nomadic tribes from Najd and Al Hasa regions in Saudi Arabia, with seasonal encampments around sources of water. In addition, fishing and pearling settlements were established on those parts of the coast near a major well.The Qatar Peninsula came under the sway of several great powers over the centuries. In the 1732, the Al Bin Ali an off-Shoot of the Bani Utbah tribe migrated from Kuwait and returned to their original domicile Zubarah located on the northern – western coast of Qatar. After this migration, the Al Bin Ali were very close to the rich oyster banks. After the Persian Occupation of Basra in 1777 many merchants and families moved from Basra and Kuwait toZubarah. After this movement, Zubarah became a thriving center of trade and pearling in the Persian Gulf region.
And the modern city of Doha developed around the largest of these, Al Bidda. After the Al Bin Ali Liberation of Bahrain in 1783, different Arab families and tribes mostly from Qatar moved to Bahrain to settle there. n the early nineteenth centuries, continuing bloody conflict involved not only the Al Khalifa, the Al Jalahima, and the Iranians but also the Omanis. After the Al Bin Ali Liberation of Bahrain in 1783, different Arab families and tribes mostly from Qatar moved to Bahrain to settle there. These families and tribes were Al-Ma’awdah, Al-Fadhil, Al-Mannai, Al-Noaimi, Al-Sulaiti, Al-Sadah, Al-Thawadi, and other families and tribes. Most of these tribes settled in Muharraq, the capital of Bahrain and the center of power at that time.
With the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into eastern Arabia in 1871, Qatar became vulnerable to occupation. The Ottomans officially renounced sovereignty over Qatar in 1913, and in 1916 the new ruler.the British And Ottomans recognised Sheikh Abdullah bin Jassim Al-Thani as the ruler. The Al Thani family had lived in Qatar for 200 years.
The 1916 treaty between the United Kingdom and Sheikh Abdullah was similar to those entered into by the British with other Persian Gulf principalities. During the 1950s and 1960s gradually increasing oil revenues brought prosperity, rapid immigration, substantial social progress, and the beginnings of Qatar’s modern history. When the U.K. announced a policy in 1968 Qatar joined the other eight states in a plan to form a union of Arab emirates.
By mid-1971, as the termination date of the British treaty relationship approached, the nine still had not agreed on terms of union. Accordingly, Qatar declared independence as a separate entity and became the fully independent State of Qatar on 1971.
Key Moments from Qatar’s History in the India Office Records Include
- 1782: The earliest recorded mention of Zubarah in the India Office Records
- 1823: The first survey of Qatar’s coastline
- 1868: Agreement between Qatar and the British
- 1913: The Death of Shaikh Jassim
- 1935: The Qatar Oil Concession
- 1939: The discovery of oil in Qatar
History and Structure of Al-Thani
The Al Thanis, an Arab tribe part of the Tamim tribe, which belongs to Mudar bin Nizar, settled at Gebrin oasis in southern Najd, in Saudi Arabia today, before they moved to Qatar. They settled in Qatar in the early 18th century. Their first settlement was at the north of the peninsula and then they settled in Doha in the 19th century under their leader Mohammad bin Thani. The group was named after the father of Mohammad, Thani bin Mohammad. The family is made of many factions. However, there were three major branches in the early 1990s: Al-Jassim, Al-Ahmed and Al-Jaber. The number of the family members during the same period was estimated to be about 3000.
List of Hakims and Emirs:
- Sheikh Mohammed bin Thani,1st Hakim of Qatar (1850–1878)
- Sheikh Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani, 1st Emir of Qatar (1878–1913)
- Sheikh Mohammed bin Jassim Al Thani, 2nd Emir of Qatar (1913–1914)
- Sheikh Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani, 3rd Emir of Qatar (1914–1949)
- Sheikh Ali bin Abdullah Al Thani, 4th Emir of Qatar (1949–1960)
- Sheikh Ahmad bin Ali Al Thani, 5th Emir of Qatar (1960–1972)
- Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani, 6th Emir of Qatar (1972–1995)
- Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, 7th Emir of Qatar (1995–2013)
- Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, 8th Emir of Qatar (2013–present)